Mr. Mugabe then went on to address Mr. Trump directly, telling him to “blow your trumpet in a musical way towards the values of unity, peace, cooperation, togetherness and dialogue which we have always stood for.”
During his speech, Mr. Trump notably omitted any talk of climate change, seen as one of the most pressing issues for many world leaders.
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada received the longest applause during his General Assembly speech on Thursday after an implicit dig at Mr. Trump.
“There is no country on the planet that can walk away from the challenge and reality of climate change,” Mr. Trudeau said, referring to Mr. Trump’s plans to pull out of the Paris climate accord.
Sergey V. Lavrov, the Russian foreign minister, was quick to embrace Mr. Trump’s paean to sovereignty.
“It is gratifying to note, as the U.S. President Donald Trump unequivocally stated from this podium last Tuesday, that it is important to comply with the principles of sovereignty in international affairs,” Mr. Lavrov said during his General Assembly speech on Thursday.
“I believe that anyone can sign on to these words,” he added.
But Mr. Lavrov was also critical of Mr. Trump’s policies on Iran, saying the “world is watching with alarm as the U.S. imposes yet a new set of restrictions against Iran.”
Sigmar Gabriel, the German foreign minister, delivered one of the toughest rebukes from a longtime American ally. Taking aim at Mr. Trump’s focus on sovereignty, he denounced the “national egoism” of his speech.
“The motto ‘Our Country First’ not only leads to more national confrontations and less prosperity, in the end, there will only be losers,” Mr. Gabriel said Thursday.
“This worldview describes the world as an arena, a kind of battleground, in which everyone is fighting against everyone else and in which everyone has to assert their own interests, either alone or in alliances of convenience,” Mr. Gabriel said. “In this worldview, the law of the strongest prevails, not the strength of the law.”
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel praised Mr. Trump’s speech in a series of Twitter messages sent shortly after the address.
“President Trump spoke the truth about the great dangers facing our world and issued a powerful call to confront them in order to ensure the future of humanity,” Mr. Netanyahu wrote Tuesday.
He also applauded Mr. Trump’s criticism of the Iran nuclear deal, an agreement that Israel has opposed from the beginning.
Later in the day, Mr. Netanyahu echoed the sentiments in his own speech to the assembly.
“I’ve listened to countless speeches in this hall, but I can say this: None were bolder, none more courageous and forthright than the one delivered by President Trump today,” Mr. Netanyahu said. “President Trump rightly called the nuclear deal with Iran, he called it an embarrassment.”
President Hassan Rouhani of Iran did not hold back when it was his turn on the podium. While Mr. Rouhani did not mentioned the American president by name, he took clear aim at Mr. Trump on Wednesday.
“It will be a great pity if this agreement were to be destroyed by rogue newcomers to the world of politics,” Mr. Rouhani said, referring to the nuclear accord between his country and six world powers. Mr. Trump had assailed the deal as “one of the worst and most one-sided transactions the United States has ever entered into.”
Mr. Rouhani praised the agreement as a “model” and pledged that Iran would not be the first to violate it.
About an hour later, he held an hourlong news conference, in which he demanded an apology from Mr. Trump for what he called “completely baseless allegations” about Iran.