Free Cash in Finland. Must Be Jobless.

Start-Ups in Pine Forests

Half a millennium ago, Thomas More’s seminal novel, “Utopia,” included the suggestion that public assistance might be a better way to deter thieves than a death sentence. More than two centuries later, the American revolutionary agitator Thomas Paine proposed creating a national pool of money distributed to every adult.

The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. promoted basic income. The libertarian economist Milton Friedman embraced a variant: negative income taxes that would put cash in the pockets of the poor.

Yet with the exception of a few experiments, basic income has been confined to the margins of policy conversations.

Until now.

Finland’s concerns are pragmatic. The government has no interest in freeing wage earners to write poetry. It is eager to generate more jobs.

The global financial crisis and its aftermath played out against a wrenching economic refashioning here. The growth of tablets and smartphones assailed a major industry, commercial paper manufacturing. A crisis in neighboring Russia diminished trade. Over the last decade, Finland’s economy has grown not at all.

For workers, the shock has been cushioned by a comprehensive social welfare system. In the five years after suffering a job loss, a Finnish family of four that is eligible for housing assistance receives average benefits equal to 73 percent of previous wages, according to data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. That is nearly triple the level in the United States.

But the social safety net also appears to be impeding the reinvigoration of the economy by discouraging unemployed people from working part time.

“It always should be worth taking the job rather than staying home and taking the benefits,” says Finland’s minister for social affairs and health, Pirkko Mattila. “We have to take the risk to do this experiment.”

Oulu, a city of nearly 200,000 people on the Nordic Sea, stands as a potentially fertile testing ground.

In centuries past, inhabitants occupied themselves shipping salmon and tar upriver to Russia while trying not to freeze to death. More recently, the city has evolved into a center for wireless communications.

Three years ago, Microsoft purchased Nokia’s handset business, raising local hopes of a revival. But last year, Microsoft went on to shutter the operation. Local Nokia jobs have been halved, falling to 2,500 from 5,000. Oulu’s unemployment rate now sits above 16 percent, more than double the national average.

City leaders portray this as an opportunity to start over, describing a future centered on companies like Asmo Solutions.

With its office in a first-story walk-up, the company checks the boxes for requisite elements of a modern start-up. Coders stare into laptops while leaning against beanbag chairs arrayed across red shag carpeting. The founder, Asmo Saloranta, 35, wears a silver hoop earring, his blond hair pulled back into a ponytail. He used to be chief executive; now he is chief visionary. He has designed a phone charger that draws power only when a phone is connected.


Creative Laboratory, a communal office space in the city for freelancers and entrepreneurs.

Janne Körkkö for The New York Times


Technopolis, a company village in Oulu.

Janne Körkkö for The New York Times

Oulu is an ideal place to start a technology business, he says: “There are highly talented tech people.”

But hiring them is maddeningly complicated.

Mr. Saloranta has his eyes on a former Nokia employee who is masterly at developing prototypes. He only needs him part time. He could pay 2,000 euros a month (about $2,090). Yet this potential hire is bringing home more than that via his unemployment benefits.

“It’s more profitable for him to just wait at home for some ideal job,” Mr. Saloranta complains.

Basic income would fix this, he says: “It would activate many more unemployed people.”

This is a part of the debate that often gets missed. Monthly checks for everyone may look like socialism, but proponents advance it as a way to invigorate capitalism.

From Italy to India, companies that would like to leave behind unprofitable enterprises in favor of fresh pursuits hold back because of the expense and reputational damage of firing people. Basic income could be the tool that makes restructuring palatable.

With basic income in place, companies might be more inclined to take a risk on hiring more aggressively — adding vigor to the local economy — knowing they have the freedom to be ruthless in cutting loose those workers who prove disappointing.

“It does make it easier to have labor flexibility,” says Karl Widerquist, a philosopher at Georgetown University in Qatar, and a leading advocate for basic income. “I know that if I have to close down this operation, everyone is going to be O.K.”

People Want Better

People who lose jobs would do well to gain training in modern trades. On this point, economists universally concur. Yet in many countries, social welfare systems are so laden with rules that jobless people tend to acquire just one skill: They gain savvy in navigating the bureaucracy.

This dependency is a key justification for basic income. If people receive money without having to endure appointments with government bureaucrats, they will have time for more productive exploits.

“Basic income is kind of a symbol that we believe in your capacity and we think that you are actually able to do things which are beneficial to you, and also for your community,” says Heikki Hiilamo, a professor of social policy at Helsinki University. “It’s built on a kind of a positive view of human beings. People want to be autonomous. They want to improve their well-being.”

Jaana Matila has three degrees in computing and an obsessive interest in software, and intense aspirations to forge a career in the Oulu technology scene.


Jaana Matila, who has three degrees in computing, would like to do more freelance work, but she lives in fear of derailing her unemployment benefits.

Janne Körkkö for The New York Times

What she does not have — has never had — is a full-time job.

At 29, she has completed three unpaid internships. Her last stint ended when her employer folded.

She teaches adults to swim. She catches freelance jobs, recently designing a website for a hair salon. Mostly, she lives on unemployment benefits — 700 euros a month (about $732).

Ms. Matila would like to do more freelance work, but she lives in fear of derailing her unemployment benefits. She is supposed to fill out forms that account for every bit of income while providing pay stubs, bank documents and work contracts. Earlier this year, she failed to secure a receipt for the swim lessons. While she tracked one down, she lost her benefits for a month.

“I had to ask my boyfriend, ‘Can you give me some monthly money so I can buy some food?’” she says. “It’s really frustrating.”

She thinks about starting a website. Mostly, though, she goes for walks through the forest with her dog. She frets that she is falling behind in skills as technology advances.

“People in a disadvantaged position, they use a major part of their cognitive ability worrying about their lives, worrying about where they will get their next meal,” says Mikko Annala, a researcher at Demos Helsinki, a think tank. “What if we have this potential there that is continuously worrying about life, about making it? What if we can get that into use by giving them something? That is a hypothesis that we should absolutely test.”

The most compelling argument against basic income is the most obvious: If everyone gets money without a requirement to do anything, humans may become morally depraved slackers.

Jari Viljala finds this notion ridiculous.


Jari Viljala, who lives with his wife and two daughters in Oulu, Finland, has been unemployed since the summer. He receives about $680 in monthly unemployment benefits. An electrician by trade, he could earn additional cash, if not for the unemployment rules.

Janne Körkkö for The New York Times

An electrician by trade, Mr. Viljala is accustomed to braving Arctic blasts of wind in minus-35-degree temperatures while threading wires into the spines of new housing complexes. He has left his wife and two daughters behind for as long as eight months at a time to venture north for construction projects.

His gaze intense, his arms covered in tattoos, he takes pride in his reputation as the guy who will do anything.

“The dirtiest, trickiest job that no one else wanted to do,” he says, “I have always volunteered.”

But since the summer, Mr. Viljala has been out of work. His 3,300 euros in monthly wages (about $3,450) have given way to 650 euros (about $680) in monthly unemployment benefits.

He needs money for new brakes on his 11-year-old Ford sedan, which failed inspection. Without a car, he cannot get to what work he may secure. He also needs money to get current on the rent, having fallen more than two months behind.

At 36, he is wiry and strong. He could earn additional cash on the side. But the unemployment rules say otherwise.

So he stays home and does what he can — making dinner for his girls, doing the laundry. He rides the bus through the gray dawn to the unemployment office.

He waits and he worries. He wonders how it makes any sense that an able-bodied man with every compulsion to work must stay idle to ensure that he can support his family.

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